Colonoscopy is an endoscopic  procedure used to view large intestine (colon and rectum) using an instrument  called colonoscope (a flexible tube with a small camera and lens attached at  one end). The procedure can detect inflamed tissue, ulcers, and abnormal  growths. It is used to diagnose early signs of colorectal cancer, bowel  disorders, abdominal pain, muscle spasms, inflamed tissue, ulcers, anal bleeding,  and non-dietary weight loss.

Colonoscopy is performed under general  anaesthesia. The colonoscope is inserted into the rectum which gently moves up  through the colon until it reaches the caecum (junction of small and large  intestine). Colonoscopy provides an instant diagnosis of many conditions of the  colon and is more sensitive than X-ray.

The colonoscope is then withdrawn  very slowly as the camera shows pictures of the colon and rectum on a large  screen. Polyps or growths can also be removed by colonoscopy which can be sent  later for detection of cancer.


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